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Archive for October, 2009

WarAndGame.blogspot.com

http://warandgame.blogspot.com/2009/09/boris-godunov.htmlBoris_Godunov

31.10.2009

After Ivan the Terrible’s death in 1584, Muscovy faced twin crises: dynastic and sociopolitical. The dynastic crisis involved Ivan’s heir. Ivan killed his eldest son and heir Ivan Ivanovich in a rage in 1581, and his pregnant daughter-in-law died of shock immediately afterward. That left Ivan with only two sons as possible heirs, neither ideal. The older son, Fyodor, was mentally handicapped, and all observers agreed he was incapable of ruling alone. Ivan had another son, Dmitrii, born to his seventh wife in 1582. Though Dmitrii seemed mentally sound, Ivan’s numerous marriages made Dmitrii’s legitimacy doubtful in the eyes of the church, and in any event Dmitrii was not the eldest son. At Ivan’s death, the throne went to Fyodor, despite his obvious shortcomings. If Dmitrii had reached adulthood, he might have threatened his weak half-brother, but that problem was solved when Dmitrii died in 1591 of a knife in the throat, ostensibly self-inflicted during an epileptic fit.

Despite Fyodor’s handicap, before Ivan’s death he married Irina Godunova, sister of Boris Godunov, a highly intelligent rising star in Ivan’s court. When Fyodor inherited the throne, Godunov used his position as the tsar’s brother-in-law to maneuver with remarkable rapidity and skill into position as the power behind the throne, ousting all competitors with ease. When Fyodor died childless in 1598, Godunov moved immediately to have himself crowned tsar, taking in name the authority he had in fact wielded for over a decade. The dynasty that had ruled Muscovy for centuries thus came to an end with Godunov, widely perceived as an interloper, as tsar. A group of powerful boyars, ambitious for status and possessing long memories, rankled under the authority of their lower-born tsar.

The sociopolitical crisis, compounding the dynastic crisis, grew out of the nature of Muscovy’s gentry cavalry army. Its warriors depended on grants of land to support them and their families while also paying for their arms, armor, and horses. Two long-term trends made this untenable. First, natural population growth of the gentry meant a steadily increasing number of nobles who needed land, but the territorial expansion to provide that land was difficult to achieve. Second, noble land required peasant labor to work it. Heavy taxation, harsh landlords, and the political turmoil of Ivan’s reign brought the depopulation of central Muscovy as peasants fled to newly opened territories on Muscovy’s periphery, away from landlords and tax collectors. Muscovy’s success in pushing defensive lines south into the steppe paradoxically created safe havens on the southern frontier for runaway peasants. In order to keep peasants in place to support its military class, the rulers of Muscovy over the 1500s had imposed increasing limitations on peasant movement while still allowing it in principle.

Godunov’s remarkable political skill did much to postpone disaster. He embarked on massive public works projects. One was expanding the southern defensive lines against the Tatars; another was the fortification of Muscovy’s cities, including a mammoth fortress at Smolensk, commanding the key route toward Moscow from the west. During Fyodor’s lifetime, Godunov granted tax relief to the hard-pressed gentry and imposed temporary bans on all peasant movement. These temporary bans became permanent in the 1590s, creating the institution of serfdom—an unfree peasantry bound to the land—that characterized Russian history for the next 250 years. Godunov’s reign therefore culminated a lengthy process of enserfment of the Russian peasantry to prop up the gentry who made up the Muscovite army. Tying peasants permanently to the land, however, only slowed the crisis. In Russia’s vast spaces, with labor short everywhere, escaped peasants were difficult to track down. With the average pomeshchik possessing only a half-dozen peasant households, the flight of even one was an economic catastrophe.

Many fleeing peasants, along with escaped slaves and poor nobles who could not meet their service obligations, went south to enroll as soldiers along the frontier defenses. Others joined cossack bands. The cossacks, a term derived from the Turkish word for “wanderer” or “freebooter,” were a heterogeneous community along Muscovy’s southern borders, living in democratic and communal settlements in the no-man’s-land of the empty steppe, what Russians called the “wild field” between settled Muscovite territory and areas under the control of the Crimean Tatars. In addition to an important community of cossacks along the Dnepr River in what is now Ukraine, other groups of cossacks formed farther east, particularly along the Don River. The cossacks lived peacefully through fishing and hunting and violently as mercenaries and raiders. Generally Orthodox, they more often than not sided with Muscovy against its Muslim Tatar enemies to the south and Catholic Polish-Lithuanian enemies to the west, but cared above all for their own liberties. For both Muscovy and Poland, each of which had substantial cossack communities on their southern frontiers, the undisciplined cossacks presented dangers and opportunities: the danger of a refuge for fleeing peasants and of unpredictable and combative bands that might turn against settled authority. On the other hand, the cossacks provided auxiliary troops in time of war and a valuable buffer against Tatar raids. Muscovy and Poland thus followed similar strategies to domesticate the cossacks, registering them where possible as regular servitors of the state, particularly by enrolling them as garrison troops along the frontiers. The growing numbers of cossacks, and their resistance to outside control, meant that the proportion under reliable authority was always small. The cossacks were jealous of their freedom, with an ethos of equality and liberty that coexisted poorly with any attempt at centralized control by Poland or Muscovy.

Godunov needed land to reward the pomeshchiki who made up his army and peasants to work that land. As a result, he steadily pushed Russian control south into the steppe, trying to recover escaped peasants and control cossacks, a process dreaded by those on the other end. Seething resentment over the relentless march south of Muscovite authority threatened to explode into open rebellion.

In terms of foreign policy, Godunov worked assiduously to maintain truces with Poland and Sweden, at least until Muscovy had recovered from the damage that Ivan had inflicted. Permanent peace was unlikely, given that Sweden held Ivangorod, a town that had been indisputably Russian for many years. Muscovy broke the truce with Sweden at the beginning of 1590. In a campaign joined personally by both Tsar Fyodor and Godunov, Muscovite troops won a quick victory outside Narva, and the Swedes agreed to return Ivangorod. Fear of Polish intervention kept Godunov from continuing the war in hopes of seizing Narva as well, and tortuous negotiations produced a permanent peace in 1595. Godunov also capably managed the Tatar threat. A Crimean invasion in 1591 reached the southern outskirts of Moscow, but a pitched battle in which the Muscovites employed guliai-gorod fortifications in conjunction with field artillery and strel’tsy infantry to resist Tatar attacks led the Crimeans to flee south, abandoning their plunder and allowing their rear guard to be annihilated. This produced a peace settlement with the Tatars, removing some of the pressure from Muscovy’s southern borders.

POSTED BY MITCH WILLIAMSON

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IslamOnline.net

http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2009-10/30/05.shtmlpopup

30.10.2009

By IslamOnline.net & Newspapers

Despite efforts by Muslim Tatars to have a mosque in the Ukrainian Crimean Peninsula, the cherished dream is dying down on the rock of political differences in the eastern European country.

“Everyone realizes that their opposition doesn’t make sense, because they had already given us permission,” Muslim leader Refat Chubarov told The New York Times on Friday, October 30.

“Behind the scenes, they are saying: ‘Crimea is Russian Orthodox land. If they want to build a mosque, they should build it where no one can see it.’ “

The government gave permission to Muslim Tatars in 2004 to build the mosque in 22 Yaltinskaya Street in Simferopol, the capital of Crimea.

But the project stalled by the Simferopol local council on claims of opposition from locals.

“The mosque will be built, but only after taking into consideration the views of the public,” said Simferopol’s mayor, Gennady Babenko.

He said that the city council has suggested other sites for building the mosque.

The mosque plans are vehemently opposed by ethnic Russians, who make up the majority of the Simferopol residents.

They fear that the mosque would signal the revival of Muslim Tatars, who were brutally expelled from Crimean by former Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

The Tatars, who have inhabited Crimea for centuries, were deported in May 1944 by Stalin, who accused them of collaborating with the Nazis.

The entire Tatar population, more than 200,000 people, was transported in brutal conditions thousands of miles away to Uzbekistan and other locations. Many died along the way or soon after arriving.

The Soviets confiscated their homes, destroying their mosques and turning them into warehouses. One was converted into a Museum of Atheism.

It was not until perestroika in the late 1980s that most of the Tatars were allowed back, a migration that continued after Ukraine became independent with the Soviet collapse in 1991.

More than 250,000 Tatars now live in Crimea, about 13 percent of its population of 2 million people.

The Tatars’ return has repeatedly touched off legal clashes over restitution of land and property, much of which is now owned by ethnic Russians.

Cherished Dream

Muslim leaders blame political forces for blocking their dream to have a mosque in the peninsula.

“There are many, many political forces that want the strains to remain,” Mustafa Dzhemilyov, chairman of the Tatar legislative council, said.

“I am referring to the Russian-speaking and Russian separatist organizations, which are supported by and fed by the government of Russia.”

Some groups in Crimea are demanding to secede from Ukraine to region Russia.

Crimea was transferred by Nikita S. Khrushchev, then the Soviet leader, to Ukraine in 1954, a move then thought to be a formality, since it remained in the Soviet Union and was populated mostly by ethnic Russians.

Tatars have better ties with the Ukrainian government, and are often seen by ethnic Russian nationalists in Crimea as Kiev’s proxies.

The three sides jockey for power on the peninsula, and the mosque has been one focal point.

Hoping to see their dream fulfilled, every Muslim Tatar in Crimea has brought a piece of brick to build the mosque.

“From each Muslim, one stone,” said Chubarov, the Muslim leader.

As the deadlock still remains, the mosque site has turned into a mountain of limestone pieces, with Muslims still waiting for a way-out.

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The New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/world/europe/30crimea.html?_r=1popup

29.10.2009

SIMFEROPOL JOURNAL

By CLIFFORD J. LEVY

SIMFEROPOL, Ukraine — Chunks of limestone, by the tens of thousands, are strewn in piles on a waterside lot here where one of Europe’s largest mosques is scheduled to rise. But the only soul around is a wizened caretaker in a tent, watching over what seems like another grandiose project gone bust with the financial crisis.

The trouble with the project, though, has nothing to do with money.

It is hinted at in the pieces of limestone themselves, many of which have been brought to the lot in protest and etched with the names of people who once lived here on the Crimean Peninsula, were deported by Stalin and never returned.

The mosque was supposed to signify the revival of those expelled, the Crimean Tatars, a Turkic ethnic group that suffered as wretched a fate as any under Communism. But with work held up by local authorities, the plan has instead stirred up a dispute involving politics, communal grievances, international tensions and historic traumas.

And so for the Crimean Tatars, the lot has become a site not for construction but for pilgrimages — and another reminder that here, as elsewhere across the former Soviet Union, the sins of the past will not be easily addressed.

“From each Muslim, one stone,” Refat Chubarov, a Tatar leader, said the other day as he offered an impromptu tour of the deserted lot.

Mr. Chubarov explained that for months, Tatars have been asked to deposit pieces of limestone on the lot, each costing less than a dollar, to demonstrate their displeasure. Thousands have done so, with many creating mini-memorials by embellishing the limestone with the names of long-dead relatives. The stones are generally 15 or 20 inches square and 7 inches deep.

The mosque, which is to have space for a few thousand worshipers, was approved in 2004 by local officials. They agreed on a prime location at 22 Yaltinskaya Street in Simferopol, the capital of Crimea, a peninsula in the Black Sea that is one of the most celebrated regions of the former Soviet Union.

The mosque project was to cost more than $10 million, most of which was to be paid by Turkish and other foreign donors, Mr. Chubarov said.

But in 2008, the Simferopol city council refused to grant final approval for the project, voicing concerns about its environmental impact because the site is near a reservoir. Officials said that traffic would overwhelm neighborhood streets and that noise from the mosque would bother patients at a nearby cancer hospital.

The city council, which is controlled by ethnic Russians, said its stance was not influenced by ethnic or religious hostility. It suggested other locations for the mosque.

“The mosque will be built, but only after taking into consideration the views of the public,” said Simferopol’s mayor, Gennady Babenko.

But Tatar leaders said they did not believe that the city would follow through on other sites. They said they doubted that the typical not-in-my-backyard complaints were genuine, asserting that local politicians simply did not want a prominent mosque in Simferopol.

“Everyone realizes that their opposition doesn’t make sense, because they had already given us permission,” Mr. Chubarov said. “Behind the scenes, they are saying: ‘Crimea is Russian Orthodox land. If they want to build a mosque, they should build it where no one can see it.’ “

The Tatars, who have inhabited Crimea for centuries, were deported in May 1944 by Stalin, who accused them of collaborating with the Nazis (some did, but most did not). The entire Tatar population, more than 200,000 people, was transported in brutal conditions thousands of miles away to Uzbekistan and other locations. Many died along the way or soon after arriving.

The Soviets confiscated their homes, destroying their mosques or treating them like warehouses. One was converted into a Museum of Atheism.

It was not until perestroika in the late 1980s that most of the Tatars were allowed back, a migration that continued after Ukraine became independent with the Soviet collapse in 1991. More than 250,000 Tatars now live in Crimea, about 13 percent of its population of 2 million people.

The Tatars’ return has repeatedly touched off legal clashes over restitution of land and property, much of which is now owned by ethnic Russians. Some have turned violent.

The situation is complicated by the political status of Crimea, which would generally prefer to secede from Ukraine and rejoin Russia. Crimea was transferred by Nikita S. Khrushchev, then the Soviet leader, to Ukraine in 1954, a move then thought to be a formality, since it remained in the Soviet Union and was populated mostly by ethnic Russians.

Tatars have better ties with the Ukrainian government, and are often seen by ethnic Russian nationalists in Crimea as Kiev’s proxies. The three sides jockey for power on the peninsula, and the mosque has been one focal point.

Tatar leaders maintain that the mosque is being blocked in part to stoke anti-Muslim and anti-Ukrainian sentiment, especially in advance of presidential elections in Ukraine, scheduled for January.

“There are many, many political forces that want the strains to remain,” said Mustafa Dzhemilyov, chairman of the Tatar legislative council. “I am referring to the Russian-speaking and Russian separatist organizations, which are supported by and fed by the government of Russia.”

Ethnic Russians in Crimea noted that Ukraine’s president, Viktor A. Yushchenko, has supported the mosque, accusing him of meddling in local affairs.

In the neighborhood around the project site, residents said the local government had the right to insist that the mosque be erected elsewhere — or not at all.

“Let’s remember that this is not Tatar land here, that the Russian people have always lived here,” said Larisa Tsybulskaya, 45, a beautician.

“My father built that house,” she said, gesturing to a nearby cluster of homes. “They are squatting on our land. Why do they have to cut all this land off and give it to one nationality for a mosque? It’s just shameful.”

But Mr. Chubarov, who is 52 and was born in exile in Uzbekistan, said Tatars would not relent.

He said the conflict had so united his community that more pieces of limestone had been brought to the lot than were needed for the mosque.

And so the extra material is to be used for homes for Tatars, in an effort to restore what was lost in Crimea 65 years ago.

A version of this article appeared in print on October 30, 2009, on page A6 of the New York edition.

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QHA Crimean News Agency

http://www.qha.com.ua/haber2.php?id=2269

Translate using “google translate”

30.10.2009

Honorary Consulate of Turkey in Akmesdzhite (Simferopol) is organizing a reception to celebrate the 86th anniversary of the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, which is noted on October 29.

The event will be held November 3 at 18.00 in the banquet hall of Commerce and Exhibition Center “SHEN.”

In addition, the same day, an official opening of the new building “Shen” and the celebration of 5 years of appointments Seyran Osmanova Honorary Consul of the Republic of Turkey g.Akmesdzhit.

Note that the October 6, 2004 Turkish President Ahmet Necdet Sezer (the period of 2000-2007.) Signed exequatur appointing Seiran Osmanova Honorary Consul of the Turkish Republic in Akmesdzhite. Since then he has been active in the implementation of the external, international policy of the state Turkey. Over this relatively short period in the address of the Honorary Consulate sent several letters of appreciation, letters from the leadership of Ukraine, Turkey, the Crimea, many public organizations.

Reference: Modern Turkey, whose predecessor was the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire, appeared on the political map after the First World War.

July 24, 1923 Treaty of Lausanne was signed, which recognized the complete independence of Turkey. Were defined national borders of Turkey, the conditions of the phased repayment of debts of the Ottoman Empire, and also announced the recognition of political and economic independence of Turkey and its right to sovereignty. October 29, 1923 Turkey was proclaimed a republic, and its first president was elected Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

The formation of the republic is a very important event in the long history of Turkey. Turkey as a result of reforms led by the republic’s founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, turned into a democratic, secular, social and legal state. Republic Day – the main state holiday in Turkey. On this day, festive parades and folk festivals. The festivities usually begin on Oct. 28 in the afternoon. On the day of the festival in the country put up national flags in government offices, educational facilities and schools – the day off. Schools are required to attend celebrations on the streets – festive processions. In the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in a special ceremonial court held the army see.

QHA

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Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty

http://www.rferl.org/content/Crimean_Tatar_Leader_Claims_FSB_Behind_Murder_Plan/1864556.htmlfsb-logo-l

29.10.2009

KYIV — Crimean Tatar leader Mustafa Dzhemilev says he believes Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB) is behind a special operation to assassinate him, RFE/RL’s Kazakh Service reports.

Two members of the Islamist group At-Takfir wal-Hidjra were arrested on October 26 during a special operation in several parts of the Ukrainian region.

Leaders of the movement are alleged to have issued a fatwa to kill Dzhemilev and some of his associates for their criticism of radical Islam.

Dzhemilev told RFE/RL that members of a radical Islamic movement who were recently arrested “could hardly” initiate such an assassination plan.

Dzhemilev said the spiritual direction of the Crimean Muslims and radical Islamist organizations share a “mutual enmity.” He added that radical Islamists have nothing in common with Islam and should be called extremists.

But Dzhemilev said he knows from diplomatic sources about FSB plans to have him killed. He said “some states who are not interested in allowing democratization in Ukraine” might be sponsoring the extremist Islamic organizations.

Ukrainian Interior Minister Yuriy Lutsenko said the arrested members of the Islamist group are refusing to talk. He said they refuse to recognize Ukrainian laws and say they are subordinate only to their religion.

Crimean police chief Gennady Moskal told RFE/RL that an estimated 100 members of extremist organizations are active in Crimea. He said security forces are searching for At-Takfir wal-Hidjra’s leader.

Moskal added that some refugees from Uzbekistan join up with Ukrainian extremist organizations.

He said he does not believe there is “a Russian trace” in any assassination plan for Dzhemilev.

Dzhemilev, who is the chairman of the Crimean Tatar Assembly and spent many years in the gulag as a Soviet dissident, had previously called on the Ukrainian government to allow the 33 Crimean Tatar parliament members to carry arms due to threats from Islamic extremists.

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ISRIA

http://www.isria.com/pages/29_October_2009_183.phpYulia-Tymoshenko

29.10.2009

Thanks to the efforts of Yulia Tymoshenko’s government, deported groups will be given state assistance in the amount of 18.3 million UAH.

This amount was allocated from the state budget for the implementation of the resettlement program for deported Crimean Tatars and other nationalities who have returned to live in Ukraine, their adaptation and integration into Ukrainian society through 2010.

An additional 10 million UAH was given to the Office of Capital Construction of the Republican Committee of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea for Interethnic Relations and Deported Citizens for these activities.

Therefore, the total amount appropriated for program activities is currently 28.28 million UAH – 154.7% of the amount planned for January-October 2009.

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Lenta.ru

http://lenta.ru/articles/2009/10/28/gru/

Translate using “google translate”

28.10.2009

The leader of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people (semi-legal ethnic parliament) Mustafa Dzhemilev recently made an unexpected discovery. According to him, Russia’s security services, corrupt Ukrainian officials and the radical Islamists have joined forces in order to “prevent the consolidation of democratic Ukrainian state.”

And way to loosen the Ukrainian democracy, they chose him, Dzhemileva, murder.

These findings Tatar leader came after the Interior Minister of Ukraine Yuri Lutsenko said that the recently captured in the Crimea Islamists plotting to kill the leaders of the Majlis and its own sources Dzhemileva in the Foreign Ministry of Ukraine told him that this history of Russia’s security services were involved.

Detainees told medzhlisovets, “only the lowest level of” behind them stood the Defense Russia Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and “performer in some parts had to be” a certain Rustam Kadyrov.

In this regard Dzhemilev required to issue a permit to carry weapons not only to him personally, but all 33 members of the Majlis.

In Ukraine, the statement Dzhemileva caused a small, but the commotion. If the words Lutsenko to detain criminals especially as no surprise to anyone (after all, is the work of the police), the information that stand behind them Russia’s security services, has caused great interest.

Journalists rushed for comments to the police. It’s no joke – Russia’s spies in conjunction with radical Islamists are preparing attacks on the territory of Ukraine!

However, there Dzhemileva statement, to put it mildly, not confirmed.

“We can only wonder the extent of his knowledge, if the leadership of the Majlis some diplomats informed about the plans of the GRU,” – said the press secretary of the Crimean militia Alexander Dombrowski.

Interior was forced to issue even a special statement in which the assumptions of the Crimean Tatar leaders as not corresponding to reality.

Sam Dzhemilev, which asked for explanations disoriented members of the press, tried to reverse.

According to him, “his misunderstood”, and concrete evidence of preparations for an attack he was not. Gazette “Today,” the head of the Majlis, said: “I only know from sources in the Foreign Ministry that was sent to Ukraine from Russia’s diplomat Vladimir Lysenko was involved in plotting the assassination of leaders of the Majlis.”

In general, something heard somewhere, but did not approve.

The majority of Ukrainian experts, Dzhemilev drew Russia’s security services in this story either out of habit, whether for political reasons.

In the Party of Regions, for example, doubted even that the detainees were indeed preparing an attempt on Dzhemileva. “Here it is only the PR. The roots of the situation – the problems faced by the Dzhemileva: Majlis breaks, young politicians crave power and scour the old chief. Lutsenko Dzhemilev played up to join the Crimean Tatars around him,” – said the deputy of PR Vadym Kolesnichenko.

In his view, close to Yulia Tymoshenko’s interior minister wants to achieve from the leader of the Majlis support for its candidature in the forthcoming elections of the Tatar population of Crimea.

In addition, the currently established Crimean Tatar elite were experiencing increasing pressure from foreign preachers of “pure Islam”, which promote radical ideas among young people and adjust it against the current leaders.

In this situation, is losing popularity Dzhemilev logical to try to unite around itself the Crimean Tatars, scaring them with terrible Russian secret services.

In favor of the fact that the story of spies, terrorists and missed the attempt is not entirely untrue, and says that the SBU – the structure directly involved in these matters – the existence of a conspiracy of the GRU and the Islamists did not even know.

A spokesman for the SBU Marina Ostapenko said only that, according to the agency, the detainees allowed themselves unflattering reviews of Dzhemileva and assured him that his “God will punish.” At the plot somehow not attracted.

Are you going to attempt, whether detainees cooperated with the GRU, and by whom they were in fact – the terrorists or simply bandits – will show the court. However, he will most likely after 17 January – the day of presidential elections, when it is no longer important, lied Lutsenko and Dzhemilev about a plot or not.

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